Business / Corporate / Partnerships / Proprietorships / Society and Non-profits

Business Law

As an entrepreneur you know your product, the service you provide, you’ve set your goals and you know what you want to accomplish.   You are very good at knowing your product and what you are passionate about.   However, you may need assistance and advice on how to structure your business for long term success and how to establish a good legal foundation to reach and maintain your goals while minimizing issues.  I can advise you on the legal aspects of setting up and operating your business and discuss options with you about what will work best in your circumstances.

Business Structure

There are various ways to structure your business.  The business structure affects how you interact with investors, suppliers, lenders, customers, etc.   Your business structure may also be changed over time, although it is best to start with the structure that will meet your long term goals to avoid the extra costs of changing it later on.

Determining what structure is best depends on your circumstances and goals; the type of business you have, who you are in business with, what your long-term vision is, where you want to conduct your business, what your exposure to risk and liability is, etc.  There are three basic structures that you can use to start your business:  a sole proprietor, a partnership or a corporation.  Whatever structure we determine is best for you, it is very important to make sure that it is set out in writing with sufficient detail to protect you and your business associates as much as possible and to put in place the mechanisms to address possible future changes.  This plan should also be done in conjunction with consideration to your family circumstances and your estate planning goals.

Setting up your business structure, and ongoing major decisions, should always be discussed with both your lawyer and accountant to maximize your benefits and minimize potential issues.  The accountant and lawyer have different specializations and each is best suited to advise you in their area of expertise.

I would be happy to answer all of your questions and help you with the documentation and legal process.   I assist clients in Okotoks, Black Diamond, Turner Valley, High River, the Foothills, Calgary and surrounding areas.    I am also mobile and can travel to you, with evening and weekend appointment times available upon request.

Contact us at 403-995-7744.

How accurate are the COVID-19 tests you use?

We use the most accurate tests available on the market. They are manufactured by internationally known, high quality laboratory companies. The PCR test for the virus has sensitivity and specificity in the 99% range. The serum IgG test manufactured by Abbott, when performed at least two weeks after a patient has first exhibited symptoms, has sensitivity of 100% and specificity of 99.5% For more information, read this article about Abbott’s antibody test

Who produces your COVID-19 infection and antibody tests?

Thermo-fisher produces our COVID-19 PCR test and Abbott produces the antibody test. Both are authorized by the FDA and also by European labs.

I heard about the FDA's concerns about Abbott’s instant coronavirus test. Do you use this test?

COVID-19 testing performed at WHG does not use Abbott's "instant" coronavirus detection test. We utilize Abbott's proven and reliable serum IgG blood test for antibody testing only, which is a different test and method for detection altogether than the rapid test by Abbott recently scrutinized in the media.

Does the COVID-19 antibody test detect 2 or 3 antibodies?

The test we are using is manufactured by Abbott and is the most accurate test currently on the market with the highest rates of sensitivity and specificity. The test is for the presence of IgG antibodies. These are the antibodies that are formed 7-14 days after becoming exposed or infected and which might indicate immunity in some way.

Does insurance cover the COVID-19 antibody test?


If I’m feeling well, should I still get tested?

You should consider testing for the virus if: You were exposed to someone with known COVID 19 You were exposed to someone with symptoms consistent with COVID 19 but who did not get tested You are concerned you may have unknowingly been exposed and want to make sure you are not carrying the virus and are asymptomatic (up to 60% of cases) You have symptoms consistent with COVID 19. You should consider testing for the Antibody if: You were sick with symptoms consistent with COVID 19 and want to know if you had it You want to know if you have antibodies as they may be protective for future risk You want to return to work and want to know if you have had the virus already

What are the benefits to getting the COVID-19 antibody test if you have not had any symptoms?

Many cases of COVID-19 virus infection are asymptomatic so it is possible you may have had an infection and already have antibodies to protect you from further infection. Although research is still being done on COVID-19 infection, in general, when people have positive antibodies they are either immune or much less likely to become infected.

Should I get re-tested before I go back to work in two weeks?

It is currently unclear whether sequential testing or repeated testing is necessary. If you are asymptomatic and test negative for both antibody and the virus, then there is probably no need for antibody testing in another 2 weeks. Current Guidance from the Centers for Disease Control is still unclear. In theory, you could be exposed right after testing. Most laboratories recommend testing every 9 – 14 days if the antibody was not present in the blood when tested due to a delay from the time of exposure to the seroconversion of the antibody that can be detected in the blood test. This seroconversion can to take anywhere from 2 – 14 days. Unfortunately, there could be exposure in the weeks after testing. Another unknown is how long the antibodies last. Because there is little information with this new virus, if you have antibodies to the virus, we can’t yet guarantee that you won’t get it again. That is why social distancing, hand washing, and face coverings are so important regardless of your test results.

My family member tested positive for COVID-19 and is recovering now. Would these tests benefit him or her?

Once someone has tested positive, then the antibody test will give information that he or she is likely to be resistant to further re-infection. However, we are still researching this. This is the person who is least likely to need either test.


Annual Return:  All corporations are required to file a corporate annual return each year on or about the anniversary of their date of incorporation.  If you miss filing your annual return for 2 or more years, your corporation will be automatically struck by Corporate Registries.   If this happens, you have to apply to reinstate your Corporation before it has legal status to carry on business.

Articles of Incorporation:  The Articles are the primary documents that create the legal entity of your corporation.  The Articles set out:  name of the corporation, classes and types of shares, restrictions on share transfer, number of directors, restrictions on type of business and any other applicable rules necessary for your corporation.

By-laws:   Govern how the corporation does business, holds meetings and makes decisions.  By-laws should also contain banking and borrowing terms.

Director:  Person appointed by the shareholders to elect the officers and to make the day-to-day decision of operating the corporation.  Although the corporation is its own legal entity, Directors may still become personally liable for decisions and events under certain circumstances.

Extra-Provincial Incorporation:   If you have or plan to have a business presence in another province, you should consider an extra-provincial registration in that province.  If you plan to have a presence across the country or in multiple provinces, it is possible a federal incorporated business is what you need.

Federal Incorporation: If you have or plan to have a business presence in several other provinces, you should consider a federal incorporation.

Joint Venture: Is a special business arrangement between two or more entities and is generally for a specific purpose and a limited time period.  These usually involve corporations but other entities may also be included.  Joint ventures are not partnerships and great care must be taken to avoid being confused with a partnership.   There are very different laws and consequences that apply to partnerships than those that apply to joint ventures.  If you want a joint venture, you want to avoid being confused with a partnership.   This is accomplished by having a well written Joint Venture Agreement in place before embarking on the joint venture.

A Joint Venture may also apply in real estate investments where an individual(s) is the money person and the other party(s) are the title holders.  An agreement is necessary for each property to set each party’s rights and obligations.

Minutes:  Are a written record of the meetings of the directors and shareholders.     The minutes contain the resolutions and other decisions of the directors and shareholders.

Minute Book:  Every Corporation is required to keep and maintain a minute book as required under the Act.   A minute book contains all of the important records of the corporation relating to directors, shareholders, officers and decisions.  It also contains the corporate documents including the articles of incorporation, by-laws, share certificates, any USA, resolutions and meeting minutes of the directors and shareholders.

Officer:   The officers of a corporation are the management and are appointed to their positions by the directors.  The officers of a corporation include the president, CEO, secretary, treasurer, and other individuals in similar positions.  The officers are responsible for managing the daily operations of a business.

Professional Corporation: Certain occupations are prevented from operating a corporation.   These occupations are also regulated by an overseeing body or professional association, such as doctors, accountants, and lawyers.   However, these professions may set-up a Professional Corporation (PC) in accordance with the specific rules of their governing body.

Registered Office:   The registered office of a corporation is the address within the where important corporate documents, such as the minute book, are kept, and where legal and other official documents may be sent.

Resolution:  A resolution is an action or motion made that is voted on by the directors or shareholders, as the case may be.

Share Structure:  Determines the different classes of shares and the number of shares in each class that the corporation may issue.

Shareholder:  Can be an individual person, one or more persons jointly or another corporation that owns shares in the subject corporation.

Unanimous Shareholder Agreement (USA):  An agreement that binds all present and future shareholders, and stipulates a number of terms to address a variety of issues and potential issues between the shareholders and between the shareholders and the corporation.